What monocytes are?

Next we will explain what monocytes are, their characteristics, origin, functions and much more. It is about the white blood cells that are found in the blood of our body and have extremely important functions that you should know

What are monocytes?

Monocytes are a type of white blood cell also known as a leukocyte. What can measure up to 18 micrometers and are concentrated between 2 and 8% of all leukocytes in the blood.

It is important to note that the mononuclear phagocytic system is made up of circulating monocytes and tissue macrophages, while promonocytes form part of the bone marrow and mature. It is removed to differentiate from the circular monocytes that after about 8 hours migrate to the different tissues and become macrophages.

What are the characteristics of monocytes?

Their most obvious characteristic is that they have a nucleus similar to that of a kidney, lobulated and cerebriform, which is usually irregularly stained with a shape similar to a grid or reticulum of color or Blue or Violet.

Such a nucleus usually contains a 21 ratio to the surrounding cytoplasm and usually has a fairly deep depression. In these cases, the cytoplasm is quite dense and bluish-gray in color, sometimes accompanied by whitish vacuoles.

What is the origin of monocytes?

As we explained before, monocytes are generated in the bone marrow and after a certain time they go to the rest of the tissues through the blood, in this way they reach organs such as the liver, lungs, spleen, lymph nodes, bones and other body cavities.

When they have been in the bloodstream for at least 24 hours, the monocytes leave this current and cross the endothelium of the capillaries towards the connective tissue, where they are easily distinguishable from macrophages.

What are the functions of monocytes?

The main function of monocytes is to eat different microorganisms or cell debris, for which certain factors such as the presence of antigens are taken into account.

Actually, this process is quite simple. It consists of surrounding the pseudopods around the molecule to recognize the cell as a member of a particular tissue of the organism. Through the cmh proteins that exist in cell membranes.

What do high blood monocytes mean?

Monocytes and white blood cells represent a kind of protective shield for the human body, therefore it is essential to maintain their normal values, since any excess or deficit of them implies that their function will be compromised, putting the health of the body at risk.

The main function of monocytes is to eat different microorganisms or cell debris, for which certain factors such as the presence of antigens are taken into account.

When monocytes are elevated, it usually means that the body is suffering from an infection, so it is important. Determine what type of infection and treat it as soon as possible to regulate its functioning.

Normally, monocytes should be between 1 and 8% of the total blood cells which means from 300 to mono hundreds to 900 per liter.
In those cases where the number of monocytes exceeds 900, it means that they are high and timely action is required to return to normal values.

As we mentioned before, the possible causes that cause the elevation of monocytes include hematological inflammatory autoimmune infectious diseases or blood disorders.

There is no particular treatment to lower the amount of monocytes in the blood, but there are specific treatments to attack the disease that is manifesting and thus achieve their natural regulation.

In this sense, it is opportune to go to the doctor to prescribe the corresponding treatment, since this is the professional empowered to indicate the measures to be taken in that case.

How dissociative disorder affects people?

Discover how dissociative disorder affects people, a disease classified as part of mental disorders and that usually manifests more frequently than is believed.

About these disorders

In general, dissociative disorders have their origin in people’s minds, causing a disconnection and difficulty in giving continuity to their thoughts, memories, actions and even the identification of their own identity.

When the person suffers from dissociative disorders, they are involuntarily the victim of a different reality and this obviously causes problems in their daily routine.

In general terms, dissociative disorders are psychological reactions to traumas that somehow serve as an escape for people to stay away from difficult memories.

The symptoms of this disease can range from amnesia to the creation of other identities that sometimes depend on the type of disorder suffered.

In most cases, stress can worsen symptoms and make them more apparent. Regarding treatments for dissociative disorders, talk therapy and medications are managed together to support the patient who is going through a difficult situation, so that you can deal with this problem and get the best possible quality of life.

What are the symptoms of these disorders?

As we have mentioned before, the symptoms depend on the type of dissociative disorder that it resembles, but in general they include the following:

  • Temporary amnesia for certain memories, people and events.
  • Feeling of being separated from yourself and your emotions.
  • Distorted perception of people and things around.
  • Identity property confusion.
  • Stress about personal relationships, work and other areas.
  • Inability to handle emotional or professional stress.
  • Mental health problems, including anxiety, depression, and suicidal thoughts.

Types of dissociative disorders

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, there are three main types of dissociative disorders. These are:

  • Dissociative amnesia whose main symptom is memory loss that cannot be justified by the existence of a disease, the patient is not able to remember information about himself, important events and people in his life, especially if they are related to something traumatic.
  • Dissociative identity disorder, also known as multiple personality where the patient develops different identities and is capable of manifesting any of them as if they coexisted inside his head.
  • Depersonalization disorder, implies a disconnection and feeling outside of oneself as if one could be bar actions, feelings and thoughts from another perspective that is not personal. When is it necessary Consult a doctor.

It is recommended to consult the doctor in the event of a dissociative disorder crisis where patients usually relive traumatic experiences that overwhelm them and motivate them to present dangerous behaviors. In these cases, people require medical attention to prevent them from harming themselves.

What are the causes of these disorders?

In most cases, these disorders arise as a kind of defense mechanism for people to face traumas due to difficult situations such as mistreatment, abuse and other experiences that people are not able to handle without help and generate so much stress that they cause this type of diseases in the psychology of patients.

What are the complications of this type of disease?

As we have mentioned before, people who suffer from dissociative disorders often put themselves at risk, therefore there are complications derived from this disease:

  • Self-harm or mutilation.
  • Suicidal thoughts and actions.
  • Sexual dysfunction.
  • Disorders caused by the use of drugs or alcohol.
  • Depression and anxiety.
  • Stress.
  • Personality disorders.
  • Difficulty sleeping, insomnia and sleepwalking.
  • Eating disorders.
  • Lightheadedness or seizures.
  • Difficulties in maintaining personal and professional relationships.

Faced with any of these symptoms, the suspicion or certainty that someone close to them is suffering from this type of disease in any of its variants, it is vitally important to show support from family and close friends, to help the patient overcome the difficulties that they are motivating its manifestation and guaranteeing greater emotional stability in your life.

The cerebellum

In this article we will inform you about the cerebellum, its anatomy, main functions, characteristics, diseases, and everything you need to know about this important region of the human brain.

What is the cerebellum?

The cerebellum is a structure that is part of the central nervous system. In fact, it constitutes the largest area of ​​the brain after the cerebrum and is located in the posterior and inferior region of the skull. Its main function is to integrate motor and sensory pathways.

In simpler words, the cerebellum is responsible for receiving information and orders from the cerebral cortex to transmit them to the musculoskeletal system so that they are executed.

Likewise, it is in charge of some processes related to memory, language, attention and learning, among others. However, the cerebellum has no function related to the olfactory system.

This important component of the brain is also responsible for the physiological tremor. Disorders in motor execution, balance or postures can be generated by any injury suffered in this area of ​​the brain.

What does the cerebellum look like?

The cerebellum is egg-shaped and weighs between 150 and 180 grams. In men it is slightly heavier than in women and its dimensions are estimated to be between 8 cm x 5 cm x 5 cm, it is covered by a fluid known as cerebrospinal fluid and has three upper and lower anterior faces.

  • The anterior aspect is connected to the medulla oblongata with the pons.
  • The superior surface is roof-shaped and connects with the tentorium cerebelli.
  • The inferior surface rests on the dura mater and connects with the occipital fossa of the skull.

Cerebellum anatomy

The cerebellum is made up of two hemispheres and in the center there is a small cavity known as the vermis. This small structure is shaped like a worm AND contains unconscious nerve pathways.

Main function of the cerebellum

As we mentioned before, the main function of the cerebellum is to coordinate the sensory and motor pathways, that is, to relate the orders that are issued by the brain so that they are executed by the locomotor system.

In this sense, the cerebellum is the one who reacts quickly to any danger signal from the outside so that the person responds quickly to this stimulus.
But that is not all the cerebellum also has some additional functions that should be known, these are:

  • Maintain balance.
  • Preserve the intervened muscle tone.
  • Regular in automatic and voluntary movements.

Diseases and injuries associated with the cerebellum

The cerebellum is an important element of the brain that, as you will have seen throughout the reading of these, intervenes in multiple essential functions of the human body. However, its functioning is affected in the presence of diseases and injuries such as the following:

  • Cancer
  • Diseases of genetic origin such as Dandy Walker
  • Cellular degeneration
  • Lower than normal muscle tone
  • Ataxias or disorders of movement and muscle control in the extremities.

Curiosities about the cerebellum

The wonders of nature and the human body never cease to amaze us, especially in certain circumstances that seem out of the ordinary, but they are realities that go beyond fiction and invite us to reflect on the importance of knowing more about our anatomy and its functionality.

Did you know that some people are born without a cerebellum? According to the studies carried out in these cases, it is practically impossible to believe that this is true, but there are indeed people who have been born without this important element of their brain.

Although being born without the cerebellum could lead to premature death, there have currently been 9 cases of adults without a cerebellum.

It is a phenomenon or malformation whose survival depends on the adaptive capacity of the human brain to environmental conditions. evidence to date.

The vestibular system

Did you know that the ear is not only used to listen to this important sense?, in its internal part it is related to functions such as balance and spatial control, learn more about it in this article dedicated to the vestibular system.

What is the vestibular system?

Has it ever happened to you that a loud or surprising sound has made you dizzy? This is due to two enlargements of the ear called utricle and saccule, which send information about the position of the head in relation to the ground when it is not in movement.

As part of the anatomy of the ear is the endolymphatic duct, which is formed by the utricular and saccular ducts, both of which are designed to detect accelerations or linear changes in the three planes of space. Therefore they are related to the functions of balance.

What are the functions of the vestibular system?

Initially, the vestibular system intervenes in balance by providing the brain with information about the position of the body, which allows the adoption of rapid compensatory movements in the event of falling or simply staggering.

In this sense, the vestibular system provides information about the movements, the position of the head and the body to the different centers that are located in the brainstem, the cerebellum and the somatic system. So it works as a key element for both postural reflexes and eye movements.

Therefore, the vestibular system works in coordination with the visual system to prevent objects from becoming blurred when the head moves. It also contributes to maintaining positional awareness when walking, running or traveling in a moving vehicle.

On the other hand, the sensors present in the skin, joints and muscles that send information to the brain about the movement, the position of each of the body parts of the body itself in relation to the environment through this feedback, the brain can indicate to the muscles, how to move and make adjustments to the position of the body that allows maintaining balance and coordination.

Alterations in the vestibular system

As you might guess, abnormalities that directly affect the vestibular system are also affecting balance, control of eye movements when we move our heads, and in general our ability to orient ourselves in space.

The alterations of this system due to any disease or temporary illness can generate symptoms such as vertigo, loss of balance, nausea and their severity can range from mild to intense.

For example, children with alterations in the vestibular system tend to present with nausea, dizziness, loss of balance and stumbling more frequently how to maintain poor posture, among other manifestations.

It is worth mentioning that the vestibular system begins to form in fetuses when they are in the mother’s womb and they are essential for early development, hence carrying out activities to promote their development from an early age is highly recommended.

Early stimulation of the vestibular system

Scientific studies have proven that vestibular stimulation is beneficial to regulate the levels of sound alteration in children and promote their attention through this sense.

For example, the use of soft music is often recommended to calm children by applying sensory inhibition at bedtime and at other times of the day when they may be more active and need to reduce their levels of activity to perform other types of activities. tasks such as quiet games, meditation, homework or eating.

Additionally, linear movements that involve rocking various parts of the body back and forth can also be useful to calm any state of hyperactivity, as they activate the reticular system through the vestibular system.